Epidemic Fear

February 26, 2009

Source: Mail Online

For full text link here

Year of publication: 2009

Publication Type:  Journal Article

Length of Publication: 10 pages|

In a nutshell: WHO Collaborative Center for Neonatal Vaccinology, Departments of Pathology-Immunology and Pediatrics, Medical Faculty of the University of Geneva, Centre Medical Universitaire, 1 rue Michel Servet, 1211 Geneva 4, Switzerland.

Infants and the elderly share a high vulnerability to infections and therefore have specific immunization requirements. Inducing potent and sustained B-cell responses is as challenging in infants as it is in older subjects. Several mechanisms to explain the decreased B-cell responses at the extremes of age apply to both infants and the elderly. These include intrinsic B-cell limitations as well as numerous microenvironmental factors in lymphoid organs and the bone marrow. This Review describes the mechanisms that shape B-cell responses at the extremes of age and how they could be taken into account to design more effective immunization strategies for these high-risk age groups.

Further disemination: If you think anyone…
 


[Archivist] Influenza immunisation in pregnancy

February 23, 2009


Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood 2009;94:201

For abstract link here

Year of publication: 2009

Publication Type: Journal Article

In a nutshell: Immunisation of pregnant mothers with inactivated trivalent influenza vaccine is recommended by the World Health Organization and by US authorities. In the USA immunisation of children aged 6–23 months is also recommended. Maternal influenza immunisation, however, is not often provided. Young infants who develop influenza are likely to be admitted to hospital and mortality from influenza in childhood is highest in the first 6 months. Now a study in Bangladesh (K Zaman and colleagues. New England Journal of Medicine 2008;359:1555–64) has shown that maternal influenza immunisation in pregnancy benefits both mother and child.

Between August 2004 and May 2005 a total of 340 pregnant women were randomised to receive either inactivated influenza vaccine or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (controls) in the third trimester of pregnancy. In both groups the infants received either pneumococcal conjugate vaccine or Hib conjugate vaccine as part of a pneumococcal vaccine trial. All infants received . . . [

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[PostScript] Follow-up analysis of serious bacterial infections in children with fever without localising signs: how do the National Institute for Clinical Excellence guidelines perform with the emergence of non-vaccine pneumococcal serotypes?

February 23, 2009


Source: Archives of Disease in Childhood 2009;94:247

For abstract link here

Year of publication: 2009

Publication Type: Journal Article

In a nutshell: After the recommendation in 2006 for PCV7 to be used in the UK, the 2007 National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines for management of feverish children recommended only evaluation of the urine in children with fever without localising signs (FWLS) that met the “green” criteria.1 In a previous study published in this journal, we presented data supporting the NICE guidelines.2 Reports describing the emergence of non-vaccine serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae, specifically 19A, have raised concerns about increasing invasive disease.3 4 We conducted this follow-up study of children with FWLS to re-evaluate the NICE guidelines in light of a possible increase in non-vaccine serotypes.

All research methods were identical to those discussed in our previous paper.2

To determine the local prevalence of serotype 19A, we examined S pneumoniae isolates causing bacteraemia and/or meningitis in paediatric patients since 2004, using reagents from Statens Serum Institut (Copenhagen, Denmark). We performed . . .

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NHS blunders behind spate of vaccine overloads

February 23, 2009


Source: Daily Mail

For full text link here

Year of publication: 2009

Publication Type: News Story

In a nutshell: Children are being given the wrong vaccinations and repeat doses of jabs they have already had due to mix-ups at GPs’ surgeries.

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British patients to test first ever vaccine to beat deadly superbug C. difficile

February 18, 2009


Source: Daily Mail – 17th February 2009

For full text link here

Year of publication: 2009

Publication Type: News Story

In a nutshell: British patients are to test a jab to beat the deadly Clostridium difficile bug.
The vaccine is the first in the world to be developed against C. diff infections which affect thousands of elderly hospital patients each year.

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An HIV Vaccine – Evolving Concepts

February 18, 2009


Source: NEJM Volume 356:2073-2081 May 17, 2007 Number 20

For abstract link here

Year of publication: 2009

Publication Type: Journal Article

Length of Publication: 9 page article

In a nutshell: Classic preventive vaccines are designed to mimic the effects of natural exposure to microbes. They provide a high level of long-lasting protection against infection in the vast majority of recipients and serve as free-standing preventive measures. Although a classic preventive vaccine remains the ultimate goal of efforts to develop a vaccine for protection against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the enormous genetic diversity and other unique features of the HIV envelope protein have thus far thwarted attempts to identify an effective candidate. However, we have learned from studies of HIV pathogenesis in humans and from animal models that a vaccine . . .

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US Court of Federal Claims finds no association between vaccines and autism

February 16, 2009


Source: NHS Immunisation

For full text link here

Year of publication: 2009

Publication Type: News Story

In a nutshell: The US Court of Federal Claims has been considering three cases relating to claims that MMR vaccine is linked to autism and has found that there is no association between vaccines and autism.

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