Immunisation Horizon Scanning Volume 6 Issue 4

May 7, 2014

Pregnant women flu vaccine uptake in Scotland falls

April 28, 2014

Source: BBC News

Follow this link for abstract

Date of publication: April 2014

Publication Type: News Item

In a nutshell: Pregnant women have been urged to take up the offer of the flu vaccine after figures showed less than half of mothers-to-be in Scotland were immunised last winter.

Length of publication: 1-page.


What a pandemic teaches us about vaccination attitudes of parents of children with asthma

April 25, 2014

Source: Vaccine, 32(20), 2275-2280

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Date of publication: April 2014

Publication Type: Article

In a nutshell:  Background

During the recent pandemic, Influenza A/H1N1 vaccine uptake remained far below the targeted rates. Associated factors regarding vaccine refusal in the general population have been reported in many studies, however the reasons behind refusals for asthmatic children have not yet been identified. We aimed to investigate Influenza A/H1N1 virus vaccine acceptance for children with asthma, to determine the attitudes and beliefs of parents concerning Influenza A/H1N1 disease and vaccine and to identify the association of asthma control parameters with vaccination.

Methods
The parents of asthmatic children aged 6–18 years participated in a cross-sectional survey study in three pediatric allergy outpatient clinics. The survey measured demographic factors, asthma control parameters, vaccination rates, and beliefs and attitudes regarding Influenza A/H1N1 vaccine.

Results
Of the 625 asthmatic children, 16.8% (n = 105) were immunized with Influenza A/H1N1 and 45.7% (n = 286) with seasonal influenza vaccine. Educational background of parents (p < 0.001 and p = 0.002, for father’s and mother’s educational level, respectively), previous vaccination with seasonal influenza (p < 0.001), and having a family member vaccinated against Influenza A/H1N1 (p < 0.001) had a significant influence on vaccine acceptance, while fear of side effects (88.6%) was the major parental reason for refusing the vaccine. Asthma control parameters had no influence on uptake of the vaccine. Physician recommendation (84.8%) was important in the decision-making process for immunization. The statement “Children with asthma should receive swine flu vaccine” increased the likelihood of being vaccinated [OR: 2.160, (95%CI 1.135–4.111), p = 0.019].

Conclusion
Although asthmatic children are considered to be a high-priority group for Influenza A/H1N1 vaccination, we found low uptake of vaccine among our patients. Beliefs and attitudes rather than asthma control parameters influenced parental decisions for immunization. Understanding the underlying determinants for refusing the vaccine will help to improve vaccine campaigns in advance of a future outbreak.

Length of publication: 6-page article.


Hospital admission rates for meningitis and septicaemia caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae in children in England over five decades: a population-based observational study

April 25, 2014

Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 14( 5), 397 – 405

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Date of publication: May 2015

Publication Type: Article

In a nutshell:  Background

Infection with Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, and Streptococcus pneumoniae causes substantial mortality and long-term morbidity in children. We know of no study to assess the long-term trends in hospital admission rates for meningitis and septicaemia caused by these pathogens in children in England. We aimed to do such a study using routinely reported data in England.

Methods

In this population-based observational study, we used datasets that include routinely collected administrative statistics for hospital care: the Hospital In-Patient Enquiry (data for England from 1968 to 1985), the Hospital Episode Statistics dataset (data for England from 1989 onwards), and the Oxford record linkage study (data for Oxfordshire and surrounding areas from 1963 to 2011). We analysed annual age-specific and age-standardised admission rates in children younger than 15 years with H influenzae, meningococcal and pneumococcal meningitis, and septicaemia.

Findings

We saw a reduction in hospital admission rates for childhood invasive bacterial disease after the introduction of conjugate vaccines against H influenzae, N meningitidis, and S pneumoniae in England. Annual incidence of H influenzae meningitis per 100 000 children decreased from 6·72 admissions (95% CI 6·18—7·26) in 1992 to 0·39 admissions (0·26—0·52) in 1994, after the introduction of routine H influenzae type b vaccination. We saw a small rise in admissions in the early 2000s, peaking at 1·24 admissions per 100 000 children (0·99—1·48) in 2003, which decreased to 0·28 per 100 000 children (0·17—0·39) by 2008 after the introduction of catch-up (2003) and routine (2006) booster programmes for young children. Meningococcal disease increased during the 1990s, reaching a peak in 1999, with 34·54 admissions (33·30—35·78) per 100 000 children. Hospital admissions decreased after the meningococcal serogroup C vaccine was introduced in 1999 and was 12·40 admissions (11·68—13·12) per 100 000 in 2011. Admissions for invasive pneumococcal disease increased from the 1990s reaching a peak in 2006 at 4·45 admissions for meningitis (95% CI 4·0—4·9) per 100 000 children and 2·81 admissions for septicaemia (2·45—3·17) per 100 000 children. A reduction in admissions occurred after the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in 2006: hospital admission rates in 2011 were 2·03 per 100 000 children for meningitis and 1·12 per 100 000 children for septicaemia.

Interpretation

Vaccine-preventable invasive bacterial disease in children has decreased substantially in England in the past five decades, most notably with the advent of effective conjugate vaccines since the 1990s. Ongoing disease surveillance and continued development and implementation of vaccines against additional pneumococcal serotypes and serogroup B meningococcal disease are important.

Length of publication: 9-page article.


Perils of launching a new vaccination campaign

April 25, 2014

Source: British Medical Journal, 348

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Date of publication: April 2014

Publication Type: Comment

In a nutshell: Launching a new vaccination programme — like last week’s recommendation for meningitis B vaccine—is tough, says a former health secretary(Frank Dobson), who describes his own battle with civil servants . . .

Length of publication: 2-page article.


Pneumococcal disease: vaccinating the nation

April 25, 2014

Source: Practice Nursing , Vol 25( 4), 180-186

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Date of publication: April 2014

Publication Type: Article

In a nutshell: Jimstan Periselneris and Jeremy Brown discuss the impact of routine vaccination on the management of pneumococcal disease in the UK

Length of publication: 6-page article.


Preventing meningitis and septicaemia: are we nearly there yet?

April 25, 2014

Source: The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 14(5), 363 – 364

Follow this link for abstract

Date of publication:  May 2014

Publication Type: Comment

In a nutshell: Bacterial meningitis and septicaemia are important causes of morbidity and mortality, especially in children. Children younger than 2 years have immature immunological responses to the polysaccharide capsule of bacteria and are thus especially susceptible to infection caused by the encapsulated bacteria Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib), Streptococcus pneumoniae , and Neisseria meningitidis . Conjugate vaccines, which combine both protein and polysaccharide antigens, can provide immunological protec …

Length of publication: 2-page article.