Updates to the UK child and adolescent vaccination schedule

May 6, 2016

Source: Nurse Prescribing, 2016, 14 (3), pp. 120-125

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Date of publication: March 2016

Publication Type: Journal Article

In a nutshell: After clean water, immunisation is the most effective public health intervention for the prevention of disease and an important component of the Healthy Child Programme (HCP) (Department of Health (DH), 2009). Nurses working in primary care should be trusted and key sources of advice for parents on the childhood immunisation programme, but keeping up to date can prove challenging in view of frequent changes to the schedule. This article describes the most recent changes, including the introduction of meningococcal B and ACWY vaccines to the schedule and the extension of the influenza vaccine to some older children. The success of the rotavirus programme is described and continuing issues for the maternal pertussis and influenza vaccine programmes are discussed. In addition, possible future changes to the human papillomavirus and hepatitis B programmes are outlined.

Length of publication: 6 page article

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An update on immunization in UK

February 23, 2016

Source: Paediatrics and Child Health

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Date of publication: January 2016

Publication Type: Journal Article

In a nutshell: The immunization schedule changes frequently and it is important that healthcare professionals keep up to date. Parents often look to specialists for advice about vaccinating their children and place more trust in them, than government bodies. This article describes the introduction of meningococcal B and ACWY vaccines and the extension of influenza vaccine to some older children. The success of the rotavirus and maternal pertussis programmes is noted. Possible changes to the HPV and hepatitis B programmes are discussed as are vaccines for the future such as varicella, RSV and Group B streptococcus. Extra vaccines/doses for children with chronic disorders are briefly described. Keywords: hepatitis B; HPV; immunization; influenza; meningococcal ACWY; meningococcal B; pertussis; rotavirus; vaccine

Length of publication: 5 pages


UK vaccination schedule: persistence of immunity to hepatitis B in children vaccinated after perinatal exposure

May 13, 2013

Source: Archives of Diseases in Childhood, 2013;98:429–433. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2012-302153

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Date of publication: March 2013

Publication Type: Article

In a nutshell: Objective: To assess persistence of immunity to hepatitis B (HBV) in primary school children vaccinated following perinatal exposure…  Conclusions: This study of antibody persistence among UK children born to hepatitis B infected women, immunised with a 3-dose infant schedule with a toddler booster suggests sustained immunity through early childhood. These data should prompt further studies to address the need for a preschool booster.

Length of publication: 5-page article


GPs fill gap as universities fail to provide hep B jabs

September 6, 2012

Source: GP Online

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Date of publication: August 2012

Publication Type: News Item

In a nutshell: GPs are being left to immunise medical students against hepatitis B as students are not receiving the vaccinations at medical schools, the GPC has warned.
Length of publication: 1 page news item


Hepatitis B transmission event in an English prison and the importance of immunization

August 31, 2011

Source: Journal of Public Health, 2011 Jun;33(2):193-6

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Date of publication: June 2011

Publication Type: Journal Article

In a nutshell: Immunization against hepatitis B virus (HBV) is recommended for all sentenced prisoners and all new entrants to prison in the UK. In November 2008, acute hepatitis B was confirmed serologically in a 27-year-old man (Case 1) who had been incarcerated since February 2007. The cell mate of Case 1, a 26-year-old man was an established HBV carrier. A home-made tattoo gun was confiscated from their prison cell. In the absence of other clearly identifiable risk behaviours, tattooing was deemed to be a possible route of HBV transmission. Transmission of hepatitis B in a prison setting is a real concern and this report highlights the importance of immunizing prisoners against hepatitis B and should encourage health professionals to communicate the benefits of immunization to inmates to increase vaccine uptake.

Length of publication: 4-page article


Immunisation of adolescents in the UK

December 21, 2010

Source: Archives of Diseases in Childhood, 2010 Nov 30. [Epub ahead of print]

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Date of publication: November 2010

Publication Type: Review

In a nutshell: The recent introduction of routine immunisation against human papillomavirus (HPV) in adolescent girls in the UK has focused attention on the potential for immunisation in this age group. In this review the authors suggest that this is an opportunity that is not being fully utilised. In particular, there are arguments for adolescent vaccines to boost immunity against Bordetella pertussis and Neisseria meningitidis infections, and the successful implementation of the HPV vaccine could be taken as a model to prevent another sexually transmitted carcinogenic infection, hepatitis B virus.

Length of publication: Unknown


Economic evaluation of infant and adolescent hepatitis B vaccination in the UK

November 15, 2010

Source: Vaccine, 2010 Nov 10. [Epub ahead of print]

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Date of publication: November 2010

Publication Type: Journal Article

In a nutshell: A Markov model of hepatitis B virus (HBV) disease progression in the UK estimated that 81% of predicted HBV-associated morbidity and mortality could be prevented by universal infant vaccination at a cost of approximately £260,000 per QALY gained. Universal adolescent vaccination would be less effective (45% prevented) and less cost-effective (£493,000 per QALY gained). Higher HBV incidence rates in males and intermediate/high risk ethnic populations meant it was approximately 3 times more cost-effective to vaccinate these groups. At current vaccine costs a selective infant vaccination programme, based on vaccinating intermediate/high risk ethnic populations would not be considered cost effective. The threshold cost per vaccinated child at which the programme would be considered cost-effective was investigated. Universal infant vaccination would be cost-effective if the average cost of vaccinating each child against HBV, including vaccine and administration costs of all doses, was less than £4.09. Given the low cost of vaccination required to make a universal programme cost-effective the most feasible policy in the UK would be to use a suitably priced combined vaccine that included the other antigens in the current infant vaccination schedule.

Length of publication: Unknown