Immunisation Horizon Scanning Volume 7 Issue 6

February 23, 2016
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UK is safe from Zika virus and is helping towards a vaccine, MPs hear

February 23, 2016

Source: The BMJ, 2016;352:i692

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Date of publication: January 2016

Publication Type: News

In a nutshell: The United Kingdom is “on top of” the Zika virus in terms of warning its population about avoiding certain parts of South and Central America while the national vaccine network tackles the issue, MPs have been told.

Length of publication: 1 page


An update on immunization in UK

February 23, 2016

Source: Paediatrics and Child Health

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Date of publication: January 2016

Publication Type: Journal Article

In a nutshell: The immunization schedule changes frequently and it is important that healthcare professionals keep up to date. Parents often look to specialists for advice about vaccinating their children and place more trust in them, than government bodies. This article describes the introduction of meningococcal B and ACWY vaccines and the extension of influenza vaccine to some older children. The success of the rotavirus and maternal pertussis programmes is noted. Possible changes to the HPV and hepatitis B programmes are discussed as are vaccines for the future such as varicella, RSV and Group B streptococcus. Extra vaccines/doses for children with chronic disorders are briefly described. Keywords: hepatitis B; HPV; immunization; influenza; meningococcal ACWY; meningococcal B; pertussis; rotavirus; vaccine

Length of publication: 5 pages


School-based intervention for the prevention of HPV among adolescents: a cluster randomised controlled study

February 22, 2016

Source: BMJ Open, 2016;6:e009875.

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Date of publication: January 2016

Publication Type: Journal Article

In a nutshell: Objective To improve primary prevention of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection by promoting vaccination and increased condom use among upper secondary school students. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial. Setting 18 upper secondary schools in Sweden. Participants Schools were first randomised to the intervention or the control group, after which individual classes were randomised so as to be included or not. Of the 832 students aged 16 years invited to participate during the regular individual health interview with the school nurse, 751 (90.2%) agreed to participate and 741 (89.1%) students completed the study. Interventions The intervention was based on the Health Belief Model (HBM). According to HBM, a person’s health behaviour can be explained by individual beliefs regarding health actions. School nurses delivered 30 min face-to-face structured information about HPV, including cancer risks and HPV prevention, by propagating condom use and HPV vaccination. Students in the intervention and the control groups completed questionnaires at baseline and after 3 months. Main outcome measures Intention to use condom with a new partner and beliefs about primary prevention of HPV, and also specifically vaccination status and increased condom use. Results All statistical analyses were performed at the individual level. The intervention had a significant effect on the intention to use condom (p=0.004). There was also a significant effect on HBM total score (p=0.003), with a 2.559 points higher score for the intervention group compared to the controls. The influence on the HBM parameters susceptibility and severity was also significant (p<0.001 for both variables). The intervention also influenced behaviour: girls in the intervention group chose to have themselves vaccinated to a significantly higher degree than the controls (p=0.02). No harms were reported. Conclusions The school-based intervention had favourable effects on the beliefs about primary prevention of HPV, and increased the HPV vaccination rates in a diverse population of adolescents.

Length of publication: 12 page article


Immunising hard to reach children and young people

February 15, 2016

Source: British Journal of School Nursing, 10 (10), pp. 486-488, December 2015/January 2016

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Date of publication: December 2015

Publication Type: Journal Article

In a nutshell: School nurses can play an important role in reducing health inequalities by improving immunisation uptake among hard to reach children and young people. This article looks at some of the evidence, best practice and areas which need to be addressed.

Length of publication: 3 pages


The effect of sucrose as pain relief/comfort during immunisation of 15-month-old children in health care centres: a randomised controlled trial

February 15, 2016

Source: Journal of Clinical Nursing, 25 (3-4), pp. 372–380, February 2016

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Date of publication: January 2016

Publication Type: Journal Article

In a nutshell: Aims and objectives: To investigate the effect of 30% sucrose compared with a placebo (water) as pain relief and comfort during immunisation of 15-month-old children in health care centres. Background: Children experience different levels of pain and distress during immunisation. Sweet solutions function as pain relief during immunisation for infants up to one year of age. However, there are few studies of older children. Design: An experimental design in which the participants (15-month-old infants) were randomly assigned to an intervention group that received a 30% sugar solution or a control group that received a placebo (water). Methods: The study was performed at three health care centres in a large Norwegian municipality. The parents of all 15-month-old infants who were recommended for vaccination (for measles, mumps and rubella) between 5 September 2013 and 31 March 2014 were invited to have their infant participate. Duration of crying was the outcome measure. Results: A total of 114 children were included (59 in the intervention group, 55 in the control group). The intervention group infants’ crying was shorter (18 seconds mean) compared with the control group infants (33 seconds mean). The difference in crying duration between the groups was both statistically and clinically significant. Conclusion: This trial revealed that 30% sucrose orally has a calming and pain-relieving effect on 15-month-old infants during immunisation. Relevance to clinical practice: Public health nurses should use a 30% sucrose solution for pain relief during immunisation of 15-month-old infants.

Length of publication: 9 pages